Grammatikalisierung; oder: Wie kommt es zu komplexen (grammatisch darstelllbaren) sprachlichen Strukturen? Welche elementaren Formen und Funktionen sprachlichern Ausdrucks setzen sie voraus?

Die entwicklungswissenschaftliche Perspektive von Michael Tomasello (Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge (Mass.)/London 2008):

1. „Grammar presupposes intentional communication, at the very least, and then grammatical devices and constructions structure multiunit utterances in functionally meaningful ways."

2. „Our general approach is once again to focus on the three major motives of human cooperative communication: requesting, informing, and sharing.“

3. „different groups of humans conventionalized different ways of fulfilling the functional demands of simple, serious, and fancy syntax. This structuring was embodied in grammatical constructions - complex patterns of multiunit utterances - which were conventionalized in different groups via grammaticalization and other cultural-historical processes."

4. „The key to understanding these processes is the phenomenon of language change.“

5. „Linguistic constructions are essentially prefabricated, meaning-bearing structures for use in certain recurrent communicative situations.“

6. The „conventionalization of grammar (...) can only take place if communicator and recipient have the common goal of successful communication.“

7. „Secondly, the creation and change of grammatical constructions - especially the process of reanalysis over time - depends crucially on the way common ground and joint attention work.“

8:. „Our conclusion is thus that allthough many aspects of human linguistic competence have indeed evolved biologically, specific grammatical principles and constructions have not.“„Once cooperative communication and the motive to inform emerged - structured by common ground and communicative intentions - the way humans communicated became more complex. The grammar of informing requires additional devices for specifying which particular events and participants are being talked about (...) and marking the roles they are playing in the talked-about event or situation.“„And when I need to narrate a whole sequence of events - for example, to relate what happened to me during yesterday´s hunt - a grammar of sharing and narrative, involving even more grammatical devices, is required for relating events to one another and tracing the participants across these events.“

Vergl. Tomasello 2003

Begriff der Grammatik